Print ISSN: 1017-0715
Online ISSN: 2233-7180
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Vol.49 No.6 November 2021
Cover and Contents
51(6) 1-1, 2023
DOI: JANT Vol.51(No.6) 1-1, 2023
Aims and scope
Dimensional Stability and Mechanical Properties of Citric Acid Impregnated Samama Wood (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb) Havil) at High Curing Temperatures
Sarah Augustina , Sari Delviana Marbun , Sudarmanto , Narto , Deazy Rachmi Trisatya , Eko Budi Santoso , Dhimas Pramadani , Nanda Nur Afni , Tushliha Ayyuni Fariha , Gabriel Wiwinda L. Tobing , Wasrin Syafi’i , Tekat Dwi Cahyono , Eka Novriyanti , Muhammad Bula , Adik Bahanawan , Prabu Satria Sejati , Nam Hun Kim , Wahyu Dwianto , Philippe Gérardin
51(6) 431-446, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.431 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 431-446, 2023
Samama wood (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb) Havil) is a fast-growing and lesser-utilized wood species that has inferior properties; therefore, its quality needs to be improved. This research aimed to determine the effect of citric acid impregnation at high curing temperatures on the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood. Citric acid solution with 10% concentration (w/w) was impregnated into wood samples by vacuum-pressure method (-0.5 cmHg, 30 min; 0.7 MPa, 3 h), followed by curing process at 140℃, 160℃, and 180℃ of temperature for 1 h. In comparison, the other wood samples were heat treated at the same temperatures and time. The results showed that the increase in curing and heat temperatures for both treatments were directly proportional to the dimensional stability, but inversely proportional to the mechanical properties. Citric acid impregnated had higher density, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties, except for modulus of rupture, than that of heat treatment. The optimum temperature is suggested at 160℃ in both treatments.
Improvement of Physical and Drying Properties of Large Diameter and Long Axis Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) Poles Using Heat Treatment
Kyoung-jung Kim , Young-jin Kim , Se-yeong Park
51(6) 447-457, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.447 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 447-457, 2023
This study aimed to convert underutilized moso bamboo into high-value added products such as fences, interior materials, lighting fixtures, and accessories. Green moso bamboo poles with a diameter of approximately 10 cm and a length of approximately 3.7 m were heat treated at 140℃ using a large-scale kiln. The processing time was meticulously adjusted through various stages, including pretreatment (6-8 hours at 60℃), cooking (8-10 hours at 100℃), steaming (26-30 hours at 120℃), heating (4-6 hours at 140℃), and finally, cooling (below 80℃). A meticulously designed heat treatment process has enabled efficient mass production of moso bamboo poles with improved qualities, including minimal splitting, moisture levels below 3%, and a specific gravity of 1.05. The focus of this study was to present the physical and drying properties, such as color, dimensional change, specific gravity, moisture content, and splitting, observed during the heat treatment process.
Text Mining of Wood Science Research Published in Korean and Japanese Journals
51(6) 458-469, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.458 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 458-469, 2023
Text mining techniques provide valuable insights into research information across various fields. In this study, text mining was used to identify research trends in wood science from 2012 to 2022, with a focus on representative journals published in Korea and Japan. Abstracts from Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology (JKWST, 785 articles) and Journal of Wood Science (JWS, 812 articles) obtained from the SCOPUS database were analyzed in terms of the word frequency (specifically, term frequency-inverse document frequency) and co-occurrence network analysis. Both journals showed a significant occurrence of words related to the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Furthermore, words related to wood species native to each country and their respective timber industries frequently appeared in both journals. CLT was a common keyword in engineering wood materials in Korea and Japan. In addition, the keywords “MDF,” “MUF,” and “GFRP” were ranked in the top 50 in Korea. Research on wood anatomy was inferred to be more active in Japan than in Korea. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that words related to the physical and structural characteristics of wood were organically related to wood materials.
Sound Absorption of Natural Fiber Composite from Sugarcane Bagasse and Coffee Silver Skin
Wachara Kalasee , Putipong Lakachaiworakun , Visit Eakvanich , Panya Dangwilailux
51(6) 470-480, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.470 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 470-480, 2023
This study aimed to develop a sound-absorbing composite using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and coffee silver skin (CS) as raw materials. The composite boards were manufactured by bonding the fibers with Melamine Urea-Formaldehyde adhesive, ensuring a consistent thickness of 30 mm. Various densities were employed, namely 380, 450, and 520 kg/m3. The samples were fabricated with different fiber ratios, including SB100%, SB75% with CS25%, and SB50% with CS50%. The sound absorption coefficient (SAC) and noise reduction coefficient (NRC) were measured using the impedance tube method within a frequency range of 63-6,300 Hz. The experimental results revealed that the mixing ratio of CS exerted a notable influence on enhancing the SAC, while the density of the composite board exhibited a significant impact on increasing both the SAC and NRC. Among the densities tested, the optimal value was observed at 520 kg/m3, yielding a SAC value of 0.65 at a frequency of 1,000 Hz and an NRC value of 0.55 for the SB50-CS50 composite plate. These findings underscore the importance of considering the CS mixing ratio and composite board density when aiming to optimize sound absorption properties.
Natural Dye Extraction from Merbau (Intsia bijuga) Sawdust: Optimization of Solid-Solvent Ratio and Temperature
Aswati Mindaryani , Ali Sulton , Felix Arie Setiawan , Edia Rahayuningsih
51(6) 481-492, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.481 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 481-492, 2023
The ecofriendly lifestyle has attracted considerable support for sustainable development. Natural dyes, as sustainable products, have become a research focus and development area for many scientists. Ecofriendly processing also supports circular sustainable development. This study effectively obtained tannins as a natural dye from merbau (Intsia bijuga) sawdust using water as an ecofriendly solvent. Merbau sawdust is an underutilized industrial waste. Temperature and solid-solvent ratio variations were performed to extract tannins from merbau sawdust. Temperature and solid-solvent ratio positively affected solution yield and tannin concentration. The optimal condition was identified using response surface methodology and experimental observations. A yield of 0.2217 g tannins/g merbau was obtained under the conditions of 333.15 K and 0.125 solid-solvent ratio. Extraction was controlled by convective mass transfer at the interface of solid particles.
Effects of Pretreatment for Controlling Internal Water Transport Direction on Moisture Content Profile and Drying Defects in Large-Cross-Section Red Pine Round Timber during Kiln Drying
Bat-uchral Batjargal , Taekyeong Lee , Myungsik Cho , Chang-jin Lee , Hwanmyeong Yeo
51(6) 493-508, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.493 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 493-508, 2023
Round timber materials of 600 mm length, cut from large-cross-section round timber of red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) of 450 mm width and 4.2 m length, were prepared as the target of kiln drying in this study. After treating the target materials through end sealing (ES), end sealing - kerfing (ES-K), lateral sealing - end sealing - boring (LS-ES-B), or lateral sealing - partial end sealing (LS-PES), the effects of the treatment on the incidence of drying defects were determined. The target materials with exposed lateral surface and sealed cross surface were steamed at the initial temperature of 65℃ above the official pest control temperature of 56℃, followed by kiln drying toward the final temperature of 75℃. The target materials with sealed lateral surfaces, on the other hand, were dried at the initial temperature of 90℃ at almost the maximum temperature of conventional kiln drying, as there is no risk of early check formation caused by surface moisture evaporation. The final temperature was set at approximately 100℃. The drying time, taken for the target materials with initial moisture content of 70%-80% to reach the target moisture content of 19%, varied across treatment conditions. The measured drying time was 1,146 hours (approximately 48 days) for the timber with sealed cross surface and 745 hours (approximately 31 days) for the timber with sealed lateral surface, until the moisture content reached the target level. The formation of surface checks could not be prevented in the control and ES groups, but a definite preventive effect was obtained for the LS-ES-B and LS-PES groups.
Evolution of the Hanji-making Technology, from Ancient Times to the Present
Oh-kyu Lee , Seokju Kim , Hyung Won Lee
51(6) 509-525, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.509 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 509-525, 2023
This study has delved into the evolution of Hanji-manufacturing molds and techniques from ancient times to the present, aiming to uncover the current state of traditional Hanji-making techniques. In the absence of records on Hanji-making, various ancient documents, rare books, and documents during the Japanese occupation period, among other artifacts and relics, were analyzed in this study. It was discovered that a sudden significant transformation occurred in the Hanji field during the Japanese occupation period. Soda ash and caustic soda were commonly used for the pretreatment of White bark. Furthermore, a chemical bleaching powder was introduced for the pretreated White bark. Additionally, manual beating of the bark was replaced by mechanical beating methods. While these changes brought convenience to papermakers, they also resulted in a deterioration of Hanji quality. Furthermore, it was revealed that the term “Hanji” has been in use since at least 1908. Furthermore, this study clarified that Heulimtteugi is not the only traditional Hanji-making method in Korea. Instead, there existed Korea’s own traditional Gadoomtteugi method, at least up to the 1930s, before the Japanese-style Gadoomtteugi became common in Korea. Additionally, for the first time, this study raises the possibility of the adoption of mold-hanging techniques into Korea’s Heulimtteugi method from foreign sources.
Flexural Behavior of Laminated Wood Beams Strengthened with Novel Hybrid Composite Systems: An Experimental Study
Mehmet Faruk Ozdemir , Muslum Murat Maras , Hasan Basri Yurtseven
51(6) 526-541, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.526 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 526-541, 2023
Wooden structures are widely used, particularly in earthquake zones, owing to their light weight, ease of application, and resistance to the external environment. In this study, we aimed to improve the mechanical properties of laminated timber beams using novel hybrid systems [carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and wire rope]. Within the scope of this study, it is expected that using wood, which is an environmentally friendly and sustainable building element, will be more economical and safe than the reinforced concrete and steel elements currently used to pass through wide openings. The structural behavior of the hybrid-reinforced laminated timber beams was determined under the loading system. The experimental findings showed that the highest increase in the values of laminated beams reinforced with steel ropes was obtained with the 2N reinforcement, with a maximum load of 38 kN and a displacement of 137 mm. Thus, a load increase of 168% and displacement increase of 275% compared with the reference sample were obtained. Compared with the reference sample, a load increase of 92% and a displacement increase of 14% were obtained. Carbon fabrics placed between the layers with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) prevented crack development and provided significant interlayer connections. Consequently, the fabrics placed between the laminated wooden beams with the innovative reinforcement system will not disrupt the aesthetics or reduce the effect of earthquake forces, and significant reductions can be achieved in these sections.
Physicomechanical Properties Enhancement of Fast-Growing Wood Impregnated with Wood Vinegar Animal Adhesive
Efrida Basri , Saefudin , Mahdi Mubarok , Wayan Darmawan , Jamal Balfas , Yelin Adalina , Yusuf Sudo Hadi
51(6) 542-554, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.542 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 542-554, 2023
This study is a continuation of our previous work, which focused on the resistance of jabon wood to termites after impregnation with wood vinegar (WV) and animal-based adhesive (kak). This paper presents the physicomechanical properties of fast-growing jabon wood impregnated with kak at two concentrations (8% and 10%) in wood vinegar or water as a solvent with and without 4% borax. The physical properties of the impregnation solution, that is, viscosity, density, pH, and solid content, were evaluated according to SNI 06-4567-1998. Some physical parameters, such as weight percent gain (WPG), density, water uptake, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), crystallinity, and mechanical properties, i.e., modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and compression strength parallel to the grain (CS), of the impregnated wood were determined. Based on these results, wood impregnated using a mixture of kak in WV presented better physical (increased WPG, density, dimensional stability, and crystallinity) and mechanical (increased MOE/MOR and compression strength) properties than wood impregnated with a water solvent or untreated wood. The wood impregnated using WV and water solvent improved the physical and mechanical properties. The density of the wood increased by 44%-58% and 32%-47%, ASE radial-tangential increased by 38%-45%; 15%-28% after 24 h of water immersion, crystallinity increased by 59%-74%; 36%, MOE increased by 46%- 57%; 28%-31%, MOR increased by 29%-34%; 14%-27%, and compression strength increased by 40%-76%; 38%-72% values to untreated wood.
A Study on the Diffusion Strategies of Wood Culture Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Jiyoon Yang , Myungsun Yang , Yeonjung Han , Myungkil Kim , Won Joung Hwang
51(6) 555-568, 2023
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2023.51.6.555 JANT Vol.51(No.6) 555-568, 2023
The diffusion strategies of wood culture were established using the analytic hierarchy process, to prepare a diffusion plan of wood culture and wood utilization in response to climate change due to global warming. ‘Standardization of wood culture’, ‘Valuation of wood culture’, and ‘Habituation of wood culture’ were set as three major implementation strategies and priorities were evaluated. As a result, it was analyzed in the following order: ‘Development of systematic education programs for each age group for rational and efficient use of eco-friendly wood materials and development of wood education standard guidelines linked to the curriculum’, ‘Preparation of scientific basis data on human compatibility and eco-friendliness of wood to ensure the reliability of wood and wood products’, and ‘Establishment of monitoring and improvement plan through the designation as a model school’. Through this, it was determined that an educational environment, changes in public attitudes through publicity, and expanding opportunities to use wood and wood products were necessary for wood culture diffusion. The results of this study can be used as basic data to derive the diffusion strategies of wood culture and establish a roadmap and policy implementation strategy to revitalize wood culture.
51(6) 569-569, 2023
DOI: JANT Vol.51(No.6) 569-569, 2023
51(6) 570-570, 2023
DOI: JANT Vol.51(No.6) 570-570, 2023
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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