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Online ISSN: 2233-7180
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Vol.49 No.4 July 2021
Cover and Contents
49(4) 1-1, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.4) 1-1, 2021
Aims and scope
Soda Pulping of Torch Ginger Stem: Promising Source of Nonwood-Based Cellulose
Herman Marius ZENDRATO , Yunita Shinta DEVI , Nanang MASRUCHIN , Nyoman J. WISTARA
49(4) 287-298, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.287 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 287-298, 2021
Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior Jack) is a potential source of lignocellulose material for various derivative products. This study aims to determine the chemical components, ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units (S/G) in lignin, and crystallinity of the biomass of torch ginger. The effects of soda pulping on the chemical characteristics of torch ginger pulp were also studied. Pulping of the chips was conducted with active alkali of 15%, 20%, and 25% and a Liquor-to-Wood (L/W) ratio of 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1. The impregnation and pulping times at maximum temperature (170℃) were 120 and 90 min, respectively. To assess the effect of treatments on the properties of pulping, a two-factorial experimental design was applied. Results showed that the content of α-cellulose and hemicellulose in the torch ginger was 48.48% and 31.50%, respectively, with an S/G ratio of 0.70 in lignin. Soda pulping changed the crystalline structure of the biomass from triclinic to monoclinic. Active alkali, L/W ratio, and interactions considerably influenced the observed responses. The degree of delignification increased with an increase in the loading of active alkali, which lead to a decrease in the kappa number of the pulp. An active alkali content of 25% and an L/W ratio of 6:1 resulted in the highest delignification selectivity with a kappa number of 2.78 and a yield of 24%. Given its cellulose content and ease of pulping, torch ginger can be a potential raw material for derivative products that require delignification as pretreatment. However, the increase in cellulose crystallinity should be considered when converting torch ginger to bioethanol.
Specific Surface Area Characteristic Analysis of Porous Carbon Prepared from Lignin-Polyacrylonitrile Copolymer by Activation Conditions
Hyunsu LEE , Seokju KIM , Mi-Jin PARK
49(4) 299-314, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.299 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 299-314, 2021
In this study, we investigated the effect of temperature on specific surface area and electrochemical properties when lignin-based porous carbon (LBPC) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) is activated. After preparing LBPCs using lignin-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) copolymer, which was synthesized by graft polymerizing lignin and acrylonitrile as a precursor, activated LBPCs (KA-LBPC-6, 7, 8, 9) were manufactured by activating LBPC with KOH at 600℃, 700℃, 800℃ and 900℃. To identify the surface characteristics of KA-LBPC, observations were made with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore characteristics were identified via specific surface area analysis. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using a three-electrode system. The experiment has shown that micropores formed by activation can be observed in SEM images. KA-LBPC-7 had the best pore characteristics among KA-LBPCs, with a specific surface area of 2480.1 ㎡/g, a micropore volume of 0.64 ㎤/g, and a mesopore volume of 0.76 ㎤/g. KA-LBPC-7 showed the best electrochemical properties with a specific capacitance of 151.3 F/g at the scan rate of 2 mV/s.
Bending Strength of Board Manufactured from Sawdust, Rice Husk and Charcoal
Jung-Woo HWANG , Seung-Won OH
49(4) 315-327, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.315 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 315-327, 2021
Purpose of this study is reviewing the use method for the sawdust (sawmilling by-product) and rice husk (Agriculture by-product) by adding charcoal, an eco-friendly material. Mixed composite boards were manufactured with those materials with each density and mixing ratio, and bending performance was investigated. When the addition ratio of sawdust, rice husk and charcoal is 50:20:20 and the resin addition ratio is 10%, as the density of the prepared mixed board ranges from 0.5 g/㎤ to 0.7 g/㎤, the bending strength was 0.42∼3.24 N/㎟, dynamic modulus of elasticity was 94.5~888.4 N/㎟, and the static modulus of elasticity was in the range of 31.4∼220.7 N/㎟. As the density increased, the bending performance increased, indicating that the density had a significant effect on the bending performance. In a board prepared by setting the density of 0.6 g/㎤, the addition ratio of sawdust to 50%, and the addition ratio of rice husk and charcoal at different ratios, the bending performance showed a tendency to decrease as the addition ratio of charcoal increased. The relationship between the addition ratio of rice husk and charcoal, bending strength, resonance frequency, and dynamic and static bending modulus showed a rather low correlation with the values of the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.4562, 0.4310, 0.4589, and 0.5847, respectively. Thus, we found that the effect of the addition ratio on the bending performance was small.
Preprocessing Miscanthus sacchariflorus with Combination System of Cone Grinder and Air Classifier
Hyoung-Woo LEE , Chang-Deuk EOM
49(4) 328-335, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.328 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 328-335, 2021
Considerable differences exist in the characteristics of size reduction and classification because of biomass species. Miscanthus sacchariflorus (M. sacchariflorus) Goedae-Uksae 1 is not used efficiently because of the imperfections of the processing technology for this biomass. Therefore, for the best use of specific biomass, improvement in the feedstock preparation of the biomass for processing, such as pellet manufacturing, is necessary. In this study, a laboratory-scale cone grinder and air classifier were designed and combined to investigate the performance of the combination system for M. sacchariflorus. The average equivalent spherical diameter of particles showed a close relationship with air velocity for air classification. The air velocity range to classify proper particles for pelletization was determined to be 6.0-6.8 m/s. The mass ratios of the collected particles to feed mass for four lengths of chopped M. sacchariflorus were 45.1%:46.1%, 39.1%:46.6%, and 44.1%:52.8% at the first, second, and third steps in simulating the multistep combination system, respectively.
Research Trends in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) to Enhance the Rolling Shear Strength of CLT
Seung Min YANG , Hwa Hyung LEE , Seog Goo KANG
49(4) 336-359, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.336 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 336-359, 2021
In this study, hybrid CLT research and development trends were analyzed to improve the low rolling shear strength of CLT, a large wooden panel used in high-rise wooden buildings. Through this, basic data that can be used in research and development directions for localization of CLT were prepared. As a way to improve the low rolling shear strength, the use of hardwood lamina, the change of the lamina arrangement angle, and the use of structural composite materials are mainly used. Rolling shear strength and shear modulus of hardwood lamina are more than twice as high as softwood lamina. It confirmed that hardwoods can be used and unused species can be used. Rolling shear strength 1.5 times, shear modulus 8.3 times, bending stiffness 4.1 times improved according to the change of the layer arrangement angle, and the CLT strength was confirmed by reducing the layer arrangement angle. Structural wood-based materials have been improved by up to 1.35 times MOR, 1.5 times MOE, and 1.59 times rolling shear strength when used as laminas. Block shear strength between the layer materials was also secured by 7.0 N/㎟,which is the standard for block shear strength. Through the results of previous studies, it was confirmed that the strength performance was improved when a structural wood based materials having a flexural performance of MOE 7.0 GPa and MOR 40.0 MPa or more was used. This was determined based on the strength of layered materials in structural wood-based materials.
The optimal method for improving rolling shear strength is judged to be the most advantageous application of structural wood based materials with strength values according to existing specifications. However, additional research is needed on the orientation of CLT lamina arrangement according to the fiber arrangement of structural wood-based materials, and the block shear strength between lamina materials.
Effect of Resin Impregnation Ratio on the Properties of Ceramics Made from Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens Particle Boards
Jung-Woo HWANG , Hee-Jun PARK , Seung-Won OH
49(4) 360-370, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.360 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 360-370, 2021
For the purpose of finding new uses for Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens, this study first constructed boards with the particles of the plant and impregnated them with phenolic resin at resin impregnation rates of 30 ± 2%, 40 ± 2%, 50 ± 2%, and 60 ± 2%. The impregnated boards were then carbonized at the carbonization temperature of 800℃, after which their density and mechanical properties were examined according to the different resin impregnation rates. The results showed that density, flexural strength performance, Brinell hardness, and compressive strength increased as the resin impregnation rate increased, thus affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics made of M. sinensis var. purpurascens particles.
Cytotoxic Evaluation of the Essential Oils from Korean Native Plant on Human Skin and Lung Cells
Changhwan AHN , Yeong-Min YOO , Mi-Jin PARK , Youngseok HAM , Jiyoon YANG , Eui-Bae JEUNG
49(4) 371-383, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.371 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 371-383, 2021
Plant essential oils are used in products such as fragrances and cosmetics due to their individual aromatic characteristics. Currently, essential oils are not only used in cosmetics but also in pharmaceutical products with anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, psychophysiological, or anti-aging effects. Despite their pharmaceutical properties, some studies reported cytotoxic effects in high doses. Therefore, for pharmaceutical purposes, the margin of safety of essential oils needs to be examined. Herein, we evaluated the IC50 of 10 essential oil from Korean native plants: Juniperus chinensis L. var. sargentii Henry, Citrus natsudaidai Hayata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus unshiu (Yu. Tanaka ex Swingle) Marcow, Artemisia capillaris Thunb, Aster glehnii F. Schmidt, Juniperus chinensis L, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) D, and Cinnamomum loureirii. In addition, gene regulation of the cell-cycle gene and apoptosis marker CASP3 was examined at the IC50 level. The purpose of this study was to describe the toxic concentrations of essential oils extracted from Korean native plants, thereby providing toxic concentration guidelines for inclusion in a toxicity database and in the application of plant essential oils in various fields.
The Effect of Wood Extract as a Water-Soluble Fertilizer in the Growth of Lactuca sativa
Ji Young JUNG , Si Young HA , Jae-Kyung YANG
49(4) 384-393, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.384 JANT Vol.49(No.4) 384-393, 2021
Recently, due to environmental and toxicity issues, there has been increasing attention on research regarding natural products that can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Wood extracts derived from the biorefining process contain various fertilizer ingredients. HPLC analysis revealed that wood extract contains approximately 5.2% hemicellulosic sugar. The growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) upon treatment with wood extract (extract obtained from steam-exploded pine) or water-soluble fertilizers containing different nutrients was analyzed in this study. After two weeks, the growth characteristics of lettuce as affected by wood extract or water-soluble fertilizers were significantly different. The effect of water-soluble fertilizers containing ascorbic acid, magnesium sulfate, citric acid, potassium nitrate, amino acids, or seaweed extract was less desirable than that of wood extracts regarding plant height (18.6 cm), number of leaves (10), leaf length (14.1 cm), shoot fresh wight (9.8 g/plant), root fresh weight (0.8 g/plant) and shoot dry weight (0.6 g/plant). The plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, shoot fresh wight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight of water-soluble fertilizers containing wood extract were significantly different compared to the control (plant height :13.5 cm, number of leaves : 7, leaf length : 9.4 cm, shoot fresh wight : 5.3 g/plant, root fresh weight : 0.7 g/plant, shoot dry weight : 0.4 g/plant, root dry weight : 0.07 g/plant). From these results, it was concluded that wood extract can be used as a potential water-soluble fertilizer to increase the yield of leafy vegetables.
49(4) 394-396, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.4) 394-396, 2021
49(4) 397-397, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.4) 397-397, 2021
49(4) 398-398, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.4) 398-398, 2021
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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