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Vol.49 No.1 January 2021
Cover and Contents
49(1) 1-1, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.1) 1-1, 2021
Aims and scope
49(1) 2-2, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.1) 2-2, 2021
Effects of Synthesis Method, Melamine Content and GPC Parameter on the Molecular Weight of Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde Resins
Minjeong Kim , Byung-dae Park
49(1) 1-13, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.1 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 1-13, 2021
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the synthesis method, melamine content, and GPC parameters (such as flow rate, column-detector temperature, and sample injection temperature) on the molecular weight of melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins. Two different synthesis methods were employed. In the first method, MUF-A resins were synthesized by simultaneously reacting urea, formaldehyde, and melamine (5%, 10%, and 20%) using the reaction of alkaline-acid-alkaline steps under controlled temperature and viscosity. In the second method, MUF-B resins were synthesized by first reacting melamine at the same levels with formaldehyde and then by adding urea. The highest weight average molecular weight (Mw) of MUF-A resins was found at 10% melamine content when the flow rate was 0.3 and 0.8 ml/min; Mw decreased slightly at 20% melamine content. The results showed that Mw increased with an increase in the melamine content when the flow rate was 0.5 and 1.0 ml/min. In addition, Mw was the highest when the flow rate, column-detector temperature, and injection temperature were 0.3 ml/min, 50°C, and 25°C, respectively. On the contrary, MUF-B resins had greater Mw and number average molecular weight (Mn) than MUF-A resins. Overall, Mw and Mn increased as the melamine content increased. The optimal GPC parameter for MUF resins was determined as follows: a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, a column-detector temperature of 50°C, and a sample injection temperature of 50°C.
Effect of Alkali-Washing at Different Concentration on the Chemical Compositions of the Steam Treated Bamboo Strands
Muhammad Iqbal Maulana , Rio Ardiansyah Murda , Byantara Darsan Purusatama , Rita Kartika Sari , Deded Sarip Nawawi , Siti Nikmatin , Wahyu Hidayat , Seung Hwan Lee , Fauzi Febrianto , Nam Hun Kim
49(1) 14-22, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2020.49.1.14 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 14-22, 2021
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of alkali-washing with different sodium hydroxide concentrations on the chemical compositions of steam-treated Betung bamboo strand. Strands were subjected to steam treatment at 126 ºC for 1 h under 0.14 MPa pressure and followed by washing with 1-5% sodium hydroxide solution for 30 sec. The alteration of structural and non-structural chemical components content of bamboo strands was evaluated. Steam and washing treatments with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution considerably reduced the extractive content of bamboo strands, and the cell wall chemical components of the strand in the small degree. FTIR analysis showed noticeable changes in peaks related to hemicellulose and lignin. The relative crystallinity increased significantly after steam and washing treatment with sodium hydroxide up to 3% concentration. SEM Images showed smooth and clean strands surface after washing with 3% sodium hydroxide.
Antioxidant Properties of 7 Domestic Essential Oils and Identification of Physiologically Active Components of Essential Oils against Candida albicans
Sang-youn Lee , Da-song Lee , Seong-min Cho , Jong-chan Kim , Mi-jin Park , In-gyu Choi
49(1) 23-43, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.23 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 23-43, 2021
In this study, we selected two essential oils, Citrus unshiu and Cinnamomum cassia with superior antioxidant effects from the essential oils of 7 wild plants in South Korea and examined their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, which causes dermatitis to identify the antimicrobial components in the essential oils. As a result of measuring DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, SC50 value of the Citrus unshiu essential oil was 0.010 mg/mL, while for the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil, SC50 value was 0.09 mg/mL. In addition, when ABTS (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity was measured, SC50 value of the Citrus unshiu essential oil was 0.09 mg/mL, while for the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil, it was 0.06 mg/mL, exhibiting high antioxidant activity. For the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia was 1.25 mg/mL and that of Citrus unshiu was 5 mg/mL, demonstrating a high antimicrobial activity of the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil. Through the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, we assessed the antimicrobial activity against C. albicans according to the fraction components of the two essential oils. Also, by using preparative TLC (prep. TLC), we obtained the active fractions, and by performing GC/MS analysis of the components with the same Rf value, we identified the antimicrobial-active components. As a result, the main components having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were cinnamyl acetate, eucalyptol, linalool, and citral of the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and linalool from the Citrus unshiu essential oil. Also, based on the analysis of the fractional components that showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in both of the two essential oils, it was found that linalool has antioxidant activity, while cinnamyl acetate, eucalyptol, citral, and geranyl acetate have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Flame Retardancy of Plywood Treated with Various Water Glass Concentration and Additives
Sohyun Park , Yeonjung Han , Dong Won Son
49(1) 44-56, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.44 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 44-56, 2021
The carbonized length and area of plywood by the various spreading concentration of water glass and the type of additives were measured in accordance with the 45° MecKel’s burner method of the fire protection performance standard of the Korean National Fire Agency. As a result of treating water glass with a concentration of 20 to 50 % on plywood, the flame retardancy tended to increase in proportion to the concentration of water glass. However, the optimum concentration of water glass was determined to be 30 % due to the efflorescence and sticky on the surface of plywood treated with high-concentration water glass of more than 30 %. As a result of the experiment by adding different proportions of additives to the water glass with concentration of 30 %, the standard of flame performance standard was satisfied under the conditions with the addition of 15% potassium hydroxide and 1-10% aluminum hydroxide, respectively. On the other hand, there were no significant difference in the flame retardancy by adding magnesium sulfate. These results about the flame retardancy of plywood by water glass and additives were expected to be basic data for improving flame-retardant treated wood.
Development of Ply-Lam Composed of Japanese Cypress Laminae and Korean Larch Plywood
Yoshiyasu Fujimoto , Hiroshi Tanaka , Hideki Morita , Seog Goo Kang
49(1) 57-66, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.57 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 57-66, 2021
In recent years, the use of cross laminated timber (CLT) has been evolving. In addition, CLT manufactured with various species such as Japanese cedar has been developed to utilize the local resources in each country. However most factories in Japan produce CLT by bonding the laminae in width direction for orthogonal layers, where grain of element is perpendicular to the grain of outer layer, and this process is considered to be one of the factors that reduce productivity. A new wood based material (hereinafter referred to as Ply-lam) using wooden panel such as plywood for the orthogonal layer was developed in order to improve productivity in CLT manufacturing and improve quality. Japanese cypress lamina was used for the parallel layer, where grain of element is parallel to the grain of outer layer, of CLT and Korean larch plywood was used for the orthogonal layer, in order to effectively use Korean larch and expand the utilization of Japanese cypress. The cross-sectional construction of the Ply-lam was 5-layers 5-plies, and the dimensions were 1000 mm (width) × 150 mm (depth) × 4000 mm (length). As a performance evaluation of the manufactured Ply-lam, strength tests such as out-of-plane bending, in-plane bending, out-of-plane shearing and in-plane shearing tests were carried out. As the result of this study, Ply-lam composed of Japanese cypress lamina panels and Korean larch plywood showed very higher out-of-plane bending strength compared to the standard strength of CLT. And the result obtained in other tests seems to show a sufficiently high value.
Analysis and Tree-Ring Dating of Wooden Coffins Excavated from Incheon Sipjeong-Dong Site
Kwang Hee Lee , Ui Cheon Lee , Pyung Won Kang , Soo Chul Kim
49(1) 67-81, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.67 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 67-81, 2021
This study aimed to conduct tree-ring dating and analysis of the materials used for the wooden coffins excavated from the ruins of Sipjeong-dong, Incheon. The tree species for the 10 wooden coffin materials was identified as pine. For accurate tree-ring measurement, the cross section was polished using sandpaper. The annual ring width was measured with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Since the five materials were consistent with each other in dendrochronology, a representative annual ring chronology of 83 years was prepared. The prepared representative annual ring chronology was compared with the standard annual ring chronology, and the outermost ring of the wooden coffin was confirmed to correspond to the year 1575, suggesting that the wooden coffin was produced in the late 16th century. In addition, microscopic observation and FT-IR analysis revealed that the fibers attached to the surface of the wooden coffin were fibroin (Silk), and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Py-GC/MS analysis showed that the paint left on the surface of the wooden coffin was lacquer.
Functional Characteristics of Nakdong Technique Treated on Paulownia Wood Surface
Chaehoon Lee , Hwanhee Jung , Yongjae Chung
49(1) 82-92, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.82 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 82-92, 2021
Nakdong technique is an unfamiliar scorching treatment using an iron heated in a kiln over 1000℃. It is a typical convention in Asian countries to treat Nakdong on the surface of paulownia species. The scorching treatment changes the surface characteristics as well as the color of the wood. This study focused on the effects of functional features such as water resistance, anti-mold, anti-termite, and sound improvement because this treatment is usually used on paulownia wood-bodied musical instruments surface. It took 28'57" for Nakdong-iron treated surface to absorb a droplet of water. The absorbance time of iron treated surface was longer than that of torch treated one. There was no noticeable effect on the anti-mold test. On the anti-termite test, there was nearly 3% more mean mass loss on the torch samples than controlled and iron treated ones. In examining the sound radiation coefficient before and after Nakdong treatment, the Nakdong-iron treated surface showed an increase in the average value of 1.2 m4/kg s, which means that it has sound quality improvement. Through this research, the Nakdong technique results are expected to be used as basic-data for further research and give a practical idea for using the traditional treatment method on the wood surface.
Prediction of Withdrawal Resistance of Single Screw on Korean Wood Products
Kyung-sun Ahn , Sung-jun Pang , Jung-kwon Oh
49(1) 93-102, 2021
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.1.93 JANT Vol.49(No.1) 93-102, 2021
In this article, withdrawal resistances of axially loaded self-tapping screws on wood products made by Korean Larch were predicted with existing estimation equation, and compared with experimental test data. The research was required because no design methodology for the withdrawal resistance of self-tapping screw is present in Korean building code (KBC). First, the withdrawal resistance of wood screw was predicted to use the withdrawal design value estimation equation in National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Second, three types of wood products, solid wood, cross-laminated timber (CLT) and plywood, were utilized for withdrawal test. For decades, various engineered wood products have been developed, especially cross-laminated timber (CLT) and hybrid timber composites such as timber composites of solid wood and plywood. Therefore, CLT and plywood were also investigated in this study as well as solid wood. Finally, the predicted values were compared with experimentally tested values. As the results, the tested values of solid wood and CLT were higher than the predicted values. In contrast, it is inaccurate to predict withdrawal resistance of plywood since prediction was higher than tested values.
학회 및 회원소식
49(1) 103-105, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.1) 103-105, 2021
49(1) 106-106, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.1) 106-106, 2021
49(1) 107-107, 2021
DOI: JANT Vol.49(No.1) 107-107, 2021
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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